El ahorro con un vehículo híbrido (I)

El ahorro con un vehículo híbrido (I)

18 julio 2012

¿Los híbridos gastan más o menos que un vehículo similar diésel? ¿Y qué un gasolina? ¿A la larga son rentables? Estas son algunas de las preguntas que suelo oir en las comidas familiares o cuando me pongo a hablar de coches con mis amigos. Durante los siguientes parráfos intentaré darle respuesta a estas y más cuestiones.

Un automóvil híbrido es un vehículo de propulsión alternativa combinando un motor movido por energía eléctrica proveniente de las baterías y un motor de combustión interna, cuyo objetivo es reducir tanto las emisiones de gases contaminantes a la atmósfera como el consumo de combustible.

Una de las grandes ventajas de los híbridos es que permiten aprovechar un 30% de la energía que generan, mientras que un vehículo convencional de gasolina tan sólo utiliza un 19%. Esa diferencia se debe principalemente a que las baterías, almacenan, por ejemplo, la energía cinética, que se escapa en forma de calor al frenar, utilizandola para desplazarnos.

En la actualidad hay diferentes tipos de mecánicas híbridas, por lo tanto la diferencia de consumo de carburante respecto a un vehículo con un solo propulsor, como puede ser un gasolina o un diésel, es diferente. Por ello vamos a clasificarlos y hablar detenidamente de cada uno de ellos.

Tras el lanzamiento del Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Toyota es la marca generalista con más tipos y mayor gama de híbridos en el mercado, por lo que nos vamos a centrar principalmente en el gigante japonés.

A lo largo de los años, hablando con taxistas, amigos, comerciales, compañeros he llegado a la conclusión de que esta clase de vehículos respetuosos con el medio ambiente donde más rentable salen es en la ciudad, en los lugares donde se está más tiempo parado que en movimiento. Coches como el Toyota Prius convencional, con su sistema de parada y arranque automático del motor en detenciones, la regeneración de energía en las frenadas y sus dos kilómetros en modo eléctrico son los ideales para los centros urbanos. En estos lugares la diferencia frente a un diésel es brutal sin hablar ya de la que podría haber con un gasolina. Es el punto fuerte de modelos como el Prius, el Auris y el recién llegado Yaris HSD.

En carretera ocurre justo lo contrario. Es el terreno de los diésel. Un híbrido normal pierde todo lo que gana en ciudad. Sus consumos pueden llegar a doblarse, mientras que un motor propulsado por gasóleo tienden a reducirse hasta la mitad. Yo con mi Audi TDI en ciudad he visto consumos por encima de los 8Litros/100km y en carretera con cuidado con el acelerador bajaban hasta los 4.4Litros/100km.

Pero claro, un diésel es un diésel, por mucho que se empeñen las marcas en hacerlos cada vez más suaves y con sonidos más parecidos a los de un gasolina, siempre serán diésel y eso es un punto en contra. Un híbrido gasolina-eléctrico es un completo lujo. Combinas la suavidad de un gasolina con la posibilidad de no tener ruido apenas cuando circula en modo EV.

Mañana seguiremos con la segunda parte de este especial.

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