Vehículo híbrido frente a eléctrico y autonomía extendida

Vehículo híbrido frente a eléctrico y autonomía extendida

21 octubre 2011

Cuando hablamos de nuevas soluciones de movilidad para vehículos, aparecen muchos tipos de coches entre los que destacan los tan mediáticos eléctricos o también los denominados de autonomía extendida. Pero, ¿cual es la diferencia entre estos tres tipos de vehículos?, ¿qué ventajas tiene un híbrido frente a ellos?.

Estas dos cuestiones son las que hoy pretendemos despejar. Para ello hablaremos primero de qué son cada tipo de vehículo y de su funcionamiento, para posteriormente centrarnos en las ventajas de la tecnología híbrida frente a los eléctricos puros o de autonomía extendida.

Un vehículo híbrido es aquel que cuenta con un motor de combustión tradicional, además de un motor eléctrico de pequeña potencia que ayuda y asiste al motor de combustión siempre que no necesitemos un gran aporte de energía. En el caso de los híbridos de Toyota, pueden funcionar en modo totalmente eléctrico durante unos pocos kilómetros y siempre que no necesitemos demasiada potencia y por debajo de 40 km/h.

Por otro lado tenemos los vehículos eléctricos puros, los cuales sólo cuentan con un motor eléctrico que funciona gracias a la energía almacenada en sus baterías, las cuales tenemos que cargar durante aproximadamente 8 horas para conseguir una autonomía cercana a los 150 km. Aquí no hay motor de combustión por lo tanto el consumo es cero, pero a cambio tenemos una autonomía limitada a sólo 150 km.

Con la idea de mejorar la autonomía de los eléctricos puros nacen los vehículos eléctricos de autonomía extendida. La composición es un poco más compleja que un híbrido y el motor de combustión tiene diferentes funciones. Está compuesto por un motor eléctrico que se encarga de mover el coche, pero también dispone de un motor de combustión que se encarga sólo de cargar las baterías cuando se agota la carga. Debemos cargarlo durante 3-4 horas para conseguir una autonomía de 80-90 km, después arrancará el motor gasolina para cargarlas. Con estos coches tenemos menos limitaciones pero una vez que se agota la carga, el consumo es similar a un modelo híbrido o incluso superior según vayamos rodando más kilómetros.

-¿Que nos aporta un híbrido frente a un eléctrico o eléctrico de autonomía extendida?

Lo primero y fundamental hoy en día es el precio, puesto que Toyota dispone de un vehículo híbrido (el Auris HSD) desde 21.300 euros (sin contar ayudas), mientras que un eléctrico puro ronda los 30.000 euros (también sin descontar ayudas) y un eléctrico de autonomía extendida está entorno a 41.000 euros (también sin descontar  ayudas).

Otro detalle importante es la autonomía, con un Toyota Auris HSD podemos rondar unos 500-550 km de autonomía en carretera con un deposito lleno. Mientras que con un eléctrico puro apenas rondamos los 150 km y con uno de autonomía extendida la autonomía en modo totalmente eléctrico es de sólo 80-90 km y funcionando el motor de combustión hablamos de 400 km.

El ahorro de combustible es más significativo en un eléctrico pero a cambio tenemos la autonomía condicionada, y en un eléctrico de autonomía extendida si rodamos hasta agotar la autonomía del coche, el consumo medio es similar al de un vehículo híbrido.

Esperamos haber aclarado algunos conceptos sobre las nuevas soluciones de movilidad para vehículos, y nos queda para otra ocasión hablar a fondo del híbrido enchufable que Toyota ha desarrollado y ha superado con buenos resultados las pruebas piloto.

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